Cirrus Logic audio card for the Raspberry Pi revisited

There is more green space and trees around me where I am now, with many more garden birds, though no sparrows1, and occasionally some tawny owls in the night.

Tawny owls, recorded ME66 handheld

So thoughts turn to a garden recording gizmo again. I have enough power, and a network connection to a shed, a oddly wind-sheltered location and many trees nearby. For short term recordings in the field I am still in favour of the timed field recorder approach, but for the garden where I have power and data the Pi still scores. You don’t have to fiddle with it, it’s entirely remote controlled. Many years ago I had a PC in the garage which was the music server, I used a piece of software called loop recorder on that. This cat fight is one of my favourite urban recordings from that time.

although I was really trying to record a hedge full of sparrows. A loop recorder lets you go back and catch things like that, and the microphone would be much closer to the area where the owls are.

So I thought I’d revisit this Cirrus Logic audio card, particularly as a case for a Pi with this mounted was being sold off cheap for £5

The Cirrus is the only audio card for the Raspberry Pi that lets you record sound with it, as opposed to the legion of DAC cards for the Pi. You can, of course, use a USB sound card instead, though that precludes using a Model A if you want to use wifi and have the lowest power.

The good news is that a hero hacker, Matthias Reichl, has sorted out the drivers, it’s now a RPI-update rather than patching kernels and esoteric crap.

The bad news is that the manufacturer discontinued the card 🙁 Having said that, it still seems to be available for about £60 if you work hard enough, GIYF. That’s dear – a Behringer UCA202 is a good Pi compatible USB sound card for about £24, line level input. The Cirrus Logic card offers a bit more sensitivity and on board mic bias. Continue reading “Cirrus Logic audio card for the Raspberry Pi revisited”

Olympus LS-10 remote control success

I’d experimented with the wired remote for the Olympus LS- series recorders before. I have an Olympus LS-10 and an LS-14, and previous experiments showed I could make this work in principle. There’s a big gap between making it work on the bench and getting it to work in the field, however. This is the next step of boxing it up and making it stand alone.

16F628 PIC is fitted into the space of two batteries in a 4-way battery box, giving me a small box with battery holder and on/off switch. A 32kHz watch crystal gives an easy integer divide down to seconds and then hours, and reduces the power drawn by the PIC and lets me drop down to 2V Vcc and stay in spec over the industrial temperature range.

Either my LS10 is knackered or it never was compatible with Olympus’s wireless remote, it doesn’t provide 3.3V power on the plug tip, so I have to power the PIC 16F628 from two NiMH cells, which means I am short of headroom for 3.3V because there’s a 0.9V difference. I’d expect the PIC to drag the remote control line, which rests at 3.3V down to ~ 3V (2.4V VCC + 0.6V input protection diode drop)

I used a diode for the stop command pulling to ground, which still works with that diode drop, so the drive circuit is

Driving the 3V3 LS10 from a 2.4V PIC

RA4 is an open-drain connection, I figured I would chance the forward-biasing of the input protection diodes via the 100k. It works fine, at least at room temp – a 100ms pull to gnd via RA4 starts the recording, and then a 100ms pull to ground of RA2 stops the recording. Pins are switched to hi-Z inputs when not active. I guess the 3V3 from the LS10 has to go through two diode drops now to get to the 2.4V rail (diode shown and the input protection diode), and this is enough to let it float OK.

I got it to start the recorder at 4am, which is too early, but recording for two hours got me this recording at about 5:30 am of the local birds. I hear Great tit, Robin, Blackbird, some sort of gull, Wren, Woodpigeon, Crow, in that lot.

Using a 3.5mm socket as a workaround for the fiddly 4-pole 2.5mm jack plug – it’s a lot easier to wire a socket than a 4-pole plug, and I got a 4-pole 3.5mm jack to 4-pole 2.5mm jack cable from Ebay. Wiring the 4-way socket is dead easy now, and saves having a flying lead from the box.

In search of microphone weatherproofing ideas

I need to now find a way to get a reasonably weatherproof microphone. Looking at how B&K do this in the manual for the UA1404 the way to go is to use a small raincover just over the mic capsule

B&K’s solution to weatherproofing

Their mention of birds makes me thing this is very close to a mesh nut feeder – I could put horticultural fleece around the mesh and use the top cap as a rain guard. Another option is to go minimalist, recess an omni electret capsule in something like a plastic bottle cap. I’d have thought that the cavity of the raincover would cause dreadful resonances, but if it is say 2cm diameter that would be a wavelength of 330/.02 ~ 16kHz – perhaps theirs is 0.5cm keeping this down to ¼ wavelength. Where this would score is it’s small, and electret mic capsules are cheap so I could afford to lose some. I can take the line that I’ll omit the big foam guard and use a piece of horticultural fleece across the cap, this makes a reasonable wind baffle, and I’m not going to get a good recording if the wind is over 5 mph anyway because of the hiss of the wind in the trees even if I were to keep wind blast out of the mics.

I am thinking of using a small Dribox to rig the recorder and timer, and sample some birdsong from other places. A pair of AAs run the timer for at least three days and the power drain of the LS10 on standby is also low, probably good for a couple of days, but I don’t have more than four hours of recording time on the LS10, it is 2Gb. So I can live with that – the Dribox has enough room for a bigger battery if that starts to look necessary.

Skytec PRO 600 PA Amplifier repaired but bad design can’t be fixed

tl;dr – to fix the problem throw the Skytec Pro 600 away and buy something better before the Skytec blows your speakers again. Don’t buy Skytec, and if you have it throw it away before it fails on you.

Skytec is cheap rubbish made in China for kids who are wannabe DJs but have little money. This is not quality – I had to repair this amplifier because of a fundamental defect in the engineering design. These are fine for background music, say in a pub. They’ll go reasonably loud in a modest party setting ,say 30 people, but it’s rough, and it’s nasty. You’ll save on the amp and pay in bass drive units if you DJ with this at any scale 😉 And get a limiter if you can, but if you can afford that you won’t be down at the Skytec end of the market.

I made the dumb mistake of buying one of these used from Cash Converters for £30 a while back. I bought it purely on price, I wanted something basic for parties of about 30-50 people. I knew nothing about PA, but I figured a hifi amp wouldn’t cut it for that sort of usage. What I hadn’t anticipated was people shift junk onto the PA market with design defects that were solved in the 1970s. They don’t even need any new parts, just put the Vbe multiplier on the heatsink rather than on the circuit board.

Skytec 600s are sold as 600W and the manual claims 600W output. They are absolutely away with the fairies on that, to the extent they should be done under the Trade Descriptions Act. I guess they hide behind the fact they don’t say RMS power, so they probably mean peak power, though that’s still only 280W. I measured 80V p-p, which is about 28Vrms. Run that into 4Ω and you’ll get V²/R≈200W. Do that for any length of time and it will blow because of the inadequate heatsinking and bad thermal design.

about 80Vp-p (I am using 10x probes) into 6ohms, 130W per channel. Don’t do it for too long, though

HiFi tower talk glowingly about the MOSFETs

Skytec’s PA-600 gives you the extra power you need with exceptional bass. All sound components are co-ordinated carefully and captivate their longevity. The modern MOSFET transistors and extra large power transformers give great sound and dynamics. The high build quality makes it the ideal amplifier for tours and gigging. For use on stages, for DJs, monitoring, parties and conferences.

but there ain’t no MOSFETs in this, simply a pair of paralleled bipolar junction transistors in the complementary pair output stage, 2SA1941 and 2SC5198. Toshiba described the transistors as suitable for 75W amps, you have two in parallel so 150W tops, okay times two for stereo = 300W. The toroidal transformer isn’t over 600W, I’d guess 200W from the size.

It worked OK for me for a couple of years, but then I let someone use it unsupervised for live music. Which brings me to the first warning

Do NOT use the Skytec 600 for live music unless you are aware of the risks you are taking!

I wasn’t, there, and the result was a blown output stage and blown woofer. It only cost me £11 to service the amp and £50 to change out the woofer, so I am now down £91, and I still have a junk amplifier, though it works now. Now that I know the ghastly horror of the circuit design I am not sure I have the balls to use it again, but at least it works as it was meant to originally 😉

Why not for live music then?

After all, the promotional blurb says this:

The high build quality makes it the ideal amplifier for tours and gigging. For use on stages, for DJs, monitoring, parties and conferences.

so what’s the problems then? Dynamic range – live music has a higher peak to mean ratio than recorded music. You end up pushing the bugger harder, so unless you limit the live source in the mix you’ll clip the output. At least that’s what I assume happened, I wasn’t there when It failed 😉 The Skytec is fine for prerecorded music, but the basic problem is that this amp has zero protection for the speakers or the output stage. Worse still, the VBE multiplier that biases the output stage isn’t thermally coupled to the heatsink on the output stage. Let’s hear it from Rod Elliott why this sucks

Thermal Stability

It can be seen that in the Darlington configuration, there are two emitter-base junctions for each output device. Since each has its own thermal characteristic (a fall of about 2mV per degree C), the combination can be difficult to make thermally stable. In addition, the gain of transistors often increases as they get hotter, thus compounding the problem. The bias ‘servo’, typically a transistor Vbe multiplier, must be mounted on the heatsink to ensure good thermal equilibrium with the output devices, and in some cases can still barely manage to maintain thermal stability.

If stability is not maintained, the amplifier may be subject to thermal runaway, where after a certain output device temperature is reached, the continued fall of Vbe causes even more quiescent current to flow, causing the temperature to rise further, and so on. A point is reached where the power dissipated is so high that the output transistors fail – often with catastrophic results to the remainder of the circuit and/or the attached loudspeakers.

I got to find that out the hard way. I’ve actually managed to do a fair number of parties with this fine, but I was always careful to keep the bouncing LEDs of the output display under control by controlling the master gain.

How does the Skytec PRO600 do thermal stability?

On a wing and a prayer.

PC case fan blowing on the internal heatsink

They run a PC case fan 100% of the time  onto the main heatsink, sucking air out of the case, inflow is through the front. There’s no margin for error – although I didn’t trace the circuit it’s a complementary pair of paralleled output transistors driven by a driver (effectively making a Darlington output)  so you got four VBE drops reducing with temperature at 2mV/deg C, asking for thermal runaway. There’s no fight against that with the VBE multiplier because it’s not thermally coupled. Get the die temp of those output devices hot enough, say 40C above ambient and you have 40*2*2 = 160mV less bias than you started with (the drivers are conveniently mounted on the heatsink to make sure their VBE drops too).  This is designed for thermal runaway and the only thing standing between you and a blown output stage is the hope the heatsink and the fan keep the temperature rise down. You can get a little bit of an idea of the architecture from this thread and this PDF of a similar noname PA amp which gives a rough idea of the architecture on the output

Schematic someone has traced out of a similar piece of junk. In my case the four o/p transistors are 2x 2SA1941 (BG7,8) and 2x 2SC5198 (BG 9,10). BG4 is the offending Vbe multiplier that isn’t on the heatsink.

How to fix a Skytec 600 blown output stage

Change the 2SA1941 and 2SC5198 transistors 😉 I buzzed these through with a DVM on diode setting and found them all short, traced back to the drivers expecting them to have gone but they were OK, traced back a further stage of BJTs but they were OK too. The 5A fuse saved the other passive components.

It’s quite repair-friendly – unscrew the three screws on the base holding the heatsink, unplug all the connectors after taking a photo to remember where they go back. Lift the PA module out, snip the duff transistor legs to save the PCB while desoldering the pins one at a time.

snipping the duff transistor legs lets you unsolder the legs one at a time, saving the PCB from overheating.

I powered up the repaired stage on a 30-0-30V bench power supply set to limit at 100mA, I know it’s meant to work off 60-0-60V but I got a signal through and confirmed it wasn’t still duff, before getting it onto the main supply. I also compared the quiescent current (10mA at 30-0-30V)  with the good side, which was the same, so I figured the VBE multiplier was still set about right. Easy win for about £11 in parts. In fact one of the old output transistors was still okay, presumably saved by it’s parallel buddy shorting across it, but I’m not chancing it.

I also went round and tightened the output transistors a tad. It’s easy to overdo this, but the still- working side was about finger-tight like the failed side. I wonder if this also led to the early demise. You just can’t risk the transistor die heating up to any great amount with this design.

Having fixed it I started to test it looking for why it blew. I got a couple of 50W 6Ω wirewound resistors. These are sold on Ebay to people doing LED upgrades to their lights, to put in parallel with the LEDs and draw 24W so the automotive CAN bus filament blown detector doesn’t keep going off. I figured 6Ω is a nice compromise between typical 8Ω and 4Ω speaker loads; real speakers present complex loads anyway. It was the cheapest way of getting a power resistor up to the job. I then dunk the resistors in a pan of water.

Low cost high power load

since I don’t have a heatsink/fan combo up to dissipating 300W. I know electricity and water don’t really mix, but I figure the water isn’t going to shunt my 6 ohms too much. Worth heatshrinking the ends of the resistors though 😉 The reason I used a pan is because the failure mode of these type of power resistors is to violently eject the ceramic slug out the end. So a Pyrex dish or a jam jar isn’t really desirable.

Running both channels full tilt at 130Wpc for two minutes the transistors get up to about 50C at the hottest part of the plastic case. If fairness to the amp I’ve been able to fill a rented Scout hall with music without ever taking it up that high even on peaks, so I ran it for five minutes at 33 watts per channel (~40V p-p). And got the transistor cases up to 110C. The manufacturer’s spec for the junction temperature is 150C peak. If you thrash this like that for a long time I guess  the heatsink/case fan combo is hopelessly inadequate, and it blows.

Sadly I battle tested the inadequacy of the design a second time. Five minutes after running the second test, after I had brought the signal down to 0, I was greeted with this, telling me the right hand channel has gone DC, presumably thermal runaway again.

failed again

While I know how to repair this, I don’t know how to fix it to make it fit for purpose because of the fact the Vbe multiplier isn’t on the heatsink. It’s probably true that my needs don’t push it that hard, but an amplifier that blows after running a steady 33W for five minutes isn’t something I’m going to risk ever using, so it’s time to scrap it.

Skytec Pro600 – Avoid. Just say no.

Olympus LS10 and LS14 DIY wired remote control

tl;dr – the schematic

Olympus LS10 (and LS14) wired remote schematic
Olympus LS10 (and LS14) wired remote schematic

A new approach to a timed recorder

For the last year or so I’ve been trying to make an timed start recorder using a Raspberry Pi and the Wolfson/Cirrus audio card. I was able to make it work, but never eliminate some rattiness in terms of overruns on record – I confess I couldn’t hear them, but it didn’t give me a good feeling. Then I added up the costs –

£25 – Cirrus Audio card
£27 – Raspberry Pi B+£10 – case and odds and sods to make it work
£20 – PCB, time and bits to make a preamp to get from mic to line level

so I’m looking at £80 to get off the ground, and that gives me a seriously power-hungry SD audio recorder, although I can use a timer to save the power drain for active service.

Alternatively, if I could crack the remote control for them I could go on ebay and get a secondhand Olympus LS10, or one of the similar models (LS-5, LS-11, LS-12, LS-14) and use my own LS10 to start with. I can feed a mic straight into the LS10, no extra preamp required and the audio spec is good.

Reverse engineering the Olympus remote control protocol

This cost me £90 on ebay, and it turned out I didn’t need it. You get the info for free, but then I got a natty nearly new LS-14 with an RS30 remote control, so I’m not too unhappy. Unfortunately the RS30 doesn’t work with my Olympus LS10, don’t know why. I’d have been hacked off if I’d just got the RS30[ref]I’ve just got onto the Olympus RS30 website and if you scroll through the models that is compatible with it includes the LS-3, LS-5, LS-11, LS-12, LS14, LS-20M, LS100 so perhaps my LS10 was never compatible with it and Olympus have changed their mind since writing the LS10 manual which says on p65 “Exclusive remote control RS30W (scheduled for Spring 2008)”[/ref]. Works a treat with the LS14 it came with, on their own  a RS30 seems to go for £50, so I got an okay deal.

my Olympus recorders
my Olympus recorders

Google first – I owe dashanna of the naturerecordists’ list for inspiration, I vaguely recall seeing that post go through on the list. Their solution is this


The connector is an evil little 2.5mm four-pole jack, and these are a bear to solder

nasty connectors to solder, though easier when you realise you only need t wire to two parts. You can pick up 3.3V on the tip, which may be of use...
nasty connectors to solder, though easier when you realise you only need to wire two parts. You can pick up 3.3V on the tip, which may be of use…

I can’t help wondering if life would be easier using a three-pole jack, since only sleeve and ring are needed. Now I didn’t like that battery in dashanna’s version – I mean who the heck would make a wired remote for a machine offering you a 3.3V supply on the tip of the plug and demand you go fit a battery in your remote? It’s just not a clean engineering solution at all. But apparently it works.

So I rigged the cable in series with the RS30 and sniffed the signals. Of the TRRS the tip had 3.3V, the second ring seemed open circuit, the first ring had the wanted signal and the sleeve was ground. Presumably the IR receiver and LED driver are powered off the 3.3V on tip. The signal on the first ring rests high at 3.3V.

Record is this funny little signal
Record is this funny little signal, 100ms at about 1.5V followed by a low
Stop is this signal, pull to ground for 100ms
Stop is this signal, pull to ground for 100ms

In practice you can ignore the second pulse. For all I know it could be an ack back to the receiver to light the LED. I tried using a couple of diodes to pull the signal down to 1.2V but that didn’t initialise record. I then figured this is one of those analogue resistor chain remotes, so I look for what resistor would give me ~1.5V. Turns out if you replace the 1.5V battery in dashanna’s schematic with 100k you get about 1.5V and the recorder starts recording. You don’t need the second pulse at all, and the debouncing seems to be done in the recorder, it takes a little while, up to about half a second to start recording. I guess that means inside the recorder there’s a 100k resistor to the 3.3V rail in series with the first ring.

That works with both the LS 10 and the new LS14, although the RS30 only works with the LS14. So now all I need do is mod the timer to pull down a couple of pins, one through 100k. If I make the stop command the open-drain pin to ring and the rec command a normal pin resting High via 100k to ring, and pull the relevant pin down for 100ms I should be good to go.



Timed Audio Field Recorder with a Raspberry Pi Cirrus Logic Audio Card

The problem is still the same as it was this time last year – the birds get up before I do in the Spring and I can only be one place at a time. Automatic recording devices let me scout locations in parallel.

A timed field recorder needs to be cheap, because somebody might nick it, it needs to be weather-resistant because it’ll be stuck outside, and it needs to be low-power, because 13A mains sockets are rare outside. Oh and it needs to be standalone, and not part of some cloud, because mobile Internet is ratty and expensive.

tl;dr the hardware performance is good but software support is dire. You can make this work but it isn’t fun at all. If you can use something like a USB stereo audio in board then do it rather than use this Cirrus Logic Audio Card, particularly if you have mains power available. I like the Behringer UCA202 and it works with the Pi

A Raspberry Pi and A Wolfson audio card sort of fitted the bill, but the Wolfson Audio card is no more. I say sort of, because I’m still looking at about £70 for a Pi[ref]HiFi world clock it in at £220![/ref], the audio card and enough odds and sods to power it. You can buy a Zoom H1 for about £80, although there’s still a bit more cost in powering it for long times, keeping the water out and making up some gizmo to pretend to be you pressing the big rec record button early in the morning.

But with the Pi I get to drive the recorder via cron and ssh, and transfer the files via the internet or mobile data in some places. Even if I don’t get a case, though they are to be had for the Pi/CL Audio card combination…

Continue reading “Timed Audio Field Recorder with a Raspberry Pi Cirrus Logic Audio Card”

Audio Measurements and beyond rightMark

The goto program for audio measurement in the Internet age is RightMark Audio Analyzer (RMAA). It’s not an easy program to use in isolation, and is used best with some old-skool analogue technology. In particular, it doesn’t really do absolute level in any way – everything is referenced to 0dBFS.

RMAA testing is deconstructed by NwAvGuy here. His thesis is that it is impossible to use RMAA right. particularly if you have no experience of analogue electronics and no other test gear. And I’m guilty as charged of publishing RMAA test results on the internet 🙂

It saddens me a little bit that measurement has now become go out and buy £x,000 worth of test gear, plug it it, attach to D.U.T. press the button and report the result. And if you can’t do that, well, no Audio Precision test kit, no comment. I’m not dissing NwAvGuy’s observation – it’s the loss of other ways of testing audio gear I regret. I don’t test for distortion – I scan for it. That’s because I’m testing finished gear usually for how noisy it is with mics at low levels. If distortion/frequency response looks okay/reasonable with RMAA that’s great, if it doesn’t I look for what I have done wrong in setup. Most manufacturers get the distortion and frequency response basics right, but mic preamp noise does vary because most audio recording is music and therefore has plenty of signal, so preamp noise is not usually a key parameter in a field recorder.

BBC Designs EP14/1 audio test set - a tone source and a meter
BBC Designs EP14/1 audio test set – a tone source and a meter

Way back when I was working at BBC Designs, using their EP14/1 test set things were a little more from first principles than ‘press the button of this expensive gear and report back’. The EP14/1 was basically a tone source and a meter with a precision attenuator in front of it.The meter was used comparatively – you would adjust the attenuators to make it read the same as a reference reading, and the wanted information was in the different setting of the attenuators. This way any nonlinearity of the meter scale was greatly minimised. Continue reading “Audio Measurements and beyond rightMark”

Field recording using an iPod mic input and SpectrumView

recording sound using a smartphone is like a dog’s walking on his hind legs. It is not done well; but you are surprised to find it done at all.

After Samuel Johnson

The smartphone/iDevice is the preferred window to the world of many people – it’s small, it’s handy, it does everything. It’s always with you. And it will do field recording, of sorts.

The internal microphone is usually a noise cancelling microphone designed to favour nearby sounds over ones far away – usually by letting ambient sounds sneak onto the back of the mic capsule to cancel out the ambient sounds impinging on the front. You, being closer to the front and shaded from the back cancel out less. Crude, but it sort of works.

Use an external microphone, not the handset one

That’s not where you want to go as a field recordist, indeed if you could discriminate against your fumbling and breathing noises you’d be better off 🙂

You want to be able to use an external mic. Omni for general run and gun ambient drive-by recordings, and a directional/shotgun mic if you want to pick out a particular birds. To use the latter well you need to be able to hear what you’re doing. Shame, is one of the big failings of smartphone audio is that your can’t record and monitor at the same time. It’s not unreasonable, you rarely want to hear that much of yourself in a phone conversation.

You need an external adaptor lead to convert the 4 pole headphone socket to a stereo headphone + mono microphone connector, these are cheap enough on ebay

You can’t do stereo microphone recording this way, it’s mono only. The input provides plug-in-power to energise electret mic capsules, because this is the typical active device in a phone headset.

Testing frequency response and sensitivity

I tested the frequency response using Rightmark audio analyser, and it looks good enough

Frequency sweep - this is good (the vertical scale is highly expanded)
Frequency sweep – this is good (the vertical scale is highly expanded)

Going in with 1k  tone at -67dBu and 150Ω source impedance the tone level was -32dBFS RMS   and with the tone off the signal was -70dBFS RMS implying a self-noise of -105dBu [ref]44.1kHz sampling, 22kHz BW, PCM, manual gain using the app SpectrumView[/ref] Which is acceptable for urban field recording, though not stellar.

Big FAIL in the field – no monitoring

The big trouble, however, is that you can’t hear anything through the headphones, so you can’t aim a directional mic. Which makes the whole rig a bit crap to use in the field, and this doesn’t seem to be fixable.

There are other bits that grate – for instance the iPod doesn’t always pick up there’s an external microphone, so you can end up viewing the internal mic instead. Then there’s the usual rattiness of apps all round, about 1 in 30 times it just hangs outputting trash on the screen. In general, as a field recorder, smartphones suck. They can be used, but anyone who has used a real field recorder will miss the positive action of real buttons, real record level controls, real metering, and yes, being able to hear what they are doing.

Wild Mountain Echoes has a good summary of the sort of hurt associated with smartphone audio recording. Dr Johnson was right. It can be done, just not well.

Big WIN in the field – live spectrum display

Being able to watch a live sonogram using spectrumview is pretty awesome, and it’s a good sonogram, too, quite well suited to general bird sounds.

The best of all worlds, use a field recorder before the iPod!

It is not done well; but you are surprised to find it done at all.

Best not argue with Dr Johnson 🙂 As a recorder my iPod was flaky and with an input noise level some 20dB off what it could be and mono it’s nothing special even when it does record.

You can get the sonogram by feeding the iPod or smartphone/i-Device downstream of your field recorder – simply use a headphone y-splitter out of the recorder with one side going to your headphones and the other to the iDevice input, and set the gain of the iDevice waaaay down. You don’t have to record with it.

You now have a reliable recorder, decent mic preamps, you get to monitor what you record and if the iDevice throws a wobbly then you still have a good recording. But you how get a lovely spectrogram in live real-time. This is something that’s really excellent. In an ideal world the spectrogram would be built into the field recorder, however running it really hammers battery life so it’s good to have it optional. And it needs to be in colour.